How advanced were ancient Egyptians in medicine and surgical procedures? The disputed 'surgical instrument' relief in the centre here on a wall of the Temple of Kom Ombo gives us clues.
Several of the objects can be interpreted as knife blades, spatulas, small bags for drugs and specula for dilating entrances to body cavities. In the lower register, the two round objects are most probably cups for bloodletting. The tall object next to them is a papyrus scroll.
The temple built during the Ptolemaic period contains a celebrated enigma of Egyptian medicine and contains nearly 40 assorted surgical instruments.